Chemistry 12 is intended for students who have completed Chemistry 11. It extends the study of the physical properties of matter and the nature of chemical reactions, with particular focus on reaction rates and equilibria. A significant portion of the course is also based on the chemistry of acids and bases, electrochemistry and oxidation-reduction reactions. Chemistry 12 has an optional Graduation Program examination, worth 40% of the final course mark for students who choose to write it. Although students are not required to take this exam to receive credit for the course, they should be advised that some post-secondary institutions require Grade 12 exams to meet entrance requirements, and that writing Grade 12 exams also provides opportunities for provincial scholarships. It is designed as a four-credit course with an estimated 90 to 110 hours of instructional content.  This estimate is provided as a suggestion only.  The goal is to complete the course and be prepared to write the final exam at the end of the course.